The Afar Constitutional Model for Eritrea

The Afar Constitutional Model for Eritrea

Declared and agreed at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, this 1st day of July 2023


WE, the signatories to this Memorandum of Understanding, are uniting together to oppose the authoritarian regime in our homeland of Eritrea. We are working together to forge our common vision and understanding between our various opposition movements of the political and civil society for the purpose of democratizing our nation during the post-Isaias Afwerki period, and the People’s Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ).[Read more]

Eritrean Afar National Congress Resolution- July 2022

July 6, 2022|The Eritrean Afar National Congress (EANC) concluded its three-day congress held from July 1st to 3rd across various cities around the world.
The EANC congress delegates including Eritrean political opposition leaders, the leadership of Afar Diaspora, youth groups and Afar intellectuals and regional experts have together expressed their solidarity with the Eritrean Afar people’s causes and resolved their commitment to the struggle for democratic reform in Eritrea.
[Read more]

The Eritrean authorities forced the closure of the only Islamic school for Afar in Assab.


May 24, 2021: Assab-Eritrea, the Eritrean authorities forced the closure of the only Islamic school for Afar.

On May 11, 2021, two days before Eid-ul-Fitr, the Eritrean security agents (Hagerawi Dehinent) told the administration of the Mahad A-dini Al- Islami (Islamic School) in Assab to close the doors. The school staffs were told to go home without any further explanation.

The Islamic school in Assab was built in 1970 by the local traditional Afar leaders including Sheikh Mohamed Omar Akito. Historically, the school has been financed privately by Afar Salt business owners from Makaka, in the Assab region. Since the local Afar Salt mining and businesses were destroyed by the Eritrean authorities in the late 1990s, the school has been struggling to maintain its service to the Afar community.

Dankalia Media TV (DMT) which reported the School closure had said there have been previous attempts to pressure the school to close its doors. And that the school was told to stop teaching primarily Islamic classes and it should integrate its curriculum to provide other subjects such as Tigrigna among others. Since then, the school had complied with government orders and have been offering other courses to the community.

[Read more]

A short documentary film on Mahad Al Islami(Assab Islamic School)

Declaration of Eritrean Afar Traditional Leadership(Majlis Al Ayaan)

Declaration of the Eritrean Afar Traditional Elders

                                           OCTOBER 7th, 2018

WE are Traditional Afar Elders of Eritrea.  We have fled our beloved country, the territory of Dankalia, our homes, and properties due to violence and persecution including mass murder, torture, rape, disappearances, communal displacement, destruction of our culture and indigenous way of life. [Readmore]

The Uppsala Declaration


                        JULY 1st 2018

                          Resolution of the Eritrean Afar National Congress (EANC)

WE, the Indigenous Afar People of Eritrea, including Afar Elders, women, refugees, youth, Afar political and civic entities, and their senior representative organization, the Eritrean Afar National Congress (EANC), assembled together in Congress at the City of Uppsala, Sweden,  declare to the World the solemn will of the Eritrean Afar People as follows:

WHEREAS, the United Nations Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in Eritrea has found that the Government of Eritrea and Eritrean officials have engaged in an “intentional act to dispossess [Indigenous Afar People] of their ancestral lands, their livelihood and their culture” through violent means that include disappearances, rapes, murders and mass murders since 1991 until today: [i]

AND WHEREAS, both the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Eritrea and the United Nations Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in Eritrea have confirmed that the actions of the Eritrean Government and Eritrean officials against Indigenous Afar People constitute the crime of persecution, a crime against humanity;[ii]

AND WHEREAS the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples recognizes that Indigenous Peoples have the right to self-determination and that in exercising their right to self-determination, Indigenous Peoples have the right to autonomy or self-government in matters relating to their internal and local affairs;[iii]

AND WHEREAS the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples recognizes that Indigenous individuals have the rights to life, security of the person, to live in freedom, peace, and security as distinct peoples, to not be subjected to any act of genocide or any other act of violence, to not be subjected to forced assimilation or destruction of their culture, and to not be forcibly removed from their lands or territories;[iv]

AND WHEREAS all member states of the United Nations have a responsibility to protect vulnerable populations from crimes against humanity;[v]

AND WHEREAS Eritrea is a multi-ethnic, multi-religious and multilingual nation.


CONDEMN the persecution and crimes against humanity committed against Afar People by the Government of Eritrea and Eritrean officials;

CONDEMN the Murder, Torture, Rape, Disappearances, Expulsions, Forcible Confinements committed against Afar People by the Government of Eritrea and Eritrean officials;

CONDEMN the destruction of Afar identity, culture, economy and way of life intentionally committed against Afar People by the Government of Eritrea and Eritrean officials;

CONDEMN the uncompensated land expropriations and exploitation of resources in the traditional territory of the Afar people, committed by the Government of Eritrea and Eritrean officials;

CALL UPON all States and in particular, the neighboring governments of  Ethiopia and Djibouti to take appropriate measures to protect Afar refugees of Eritrea from ongoing crimes against humanity perpetrated by the Eritrean government;

RESOLVE that Afar People of Eritrea are entitled to autonomy and self-government within their traditional territories; and

RESOLVE to continue to monitor the situation of Afar People in Eritrea and to offer support consistent with the UN Universal Declarations of Human Rights;

 WE NOW DECLARE that it is the solemn will of the Eritrean Afar People to participate in a democratic and transitional process for the democratization of Eritrea on the basis of these following principles:

  1. The rule of law;
  2.  Democracy;
  3. The equality of each nationality;
  4. That each nationality shall exercise the rights of  self-government and self-determination, in a federation comprised of autonomous regions;
  5. That Afar people and each nationality shall, through the governments that they freely elect, have the right to own and control their lands and resources including surface and sub-surface resources, sea coasts, fisheries and airspace and shall enjoy the profits therefrom under conditions established by law;
  6. That the rights of freedom of religion, conscience, political opinion, expression, assembly, equality, mobility, association, and liberty shall be guaranteed;
  7. That the people of all nationalities shall be secure in their persons, shall be free from arbitrary     search, seizure, arrest, detention and charge;
  8. That no conviction shall occur except by due process of law;
  9. That the judicial branch shall be independent and secure in its tenure;
  10. That each nationality shall, through the governments that they freely elect, have the right to  protect    and preserve the vitality of their language, culture, way of life and economy;
  11. That the rights of indigenous peoples and minorities shall be guaranteed and protected;
  12. That Afar customary law shall continue to govern in the private law domain until modified or  replaced by competent Afar governmental authority;
  13.  That Afar refugees and the refugees of all nationalities of Eritrea who have fled Eritrea shall have the right of return to their homes and properties in Eritrea, to be compensated for the persecution and for the other losses that they have suffered, and to have Eritrean citizenship;
  14.  That all Afar People shall have the right of return to their ancestral homeland in Dankalia; and
  15. That Dankalia shall have its borders restored to the traditional borders which the Afar People enjoyed in 1991.

We, by our names, signatures, and marks as set out below, pledge our commitment and resolve to these solemn principles.

[i] “The Commission collected information that the Afar people have been subjected to extrajudicial killings and enforced disappearance by the Eritrean Government since 2000. These killings have also triggered their displacement from their lands within the country and across borders to Ethiopia and Djibouti. This has posed great difficulty to their livelihoods as they depend on their traditional lands for the sustenance as an indigenous ethnic group;” Report of the commission of inquiry on human rights in Eritrea (2016), para 1121,

[ii] Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Eritrea, Sheila B. Keetharuth, June 11, 2018, paras 90-93, 109;  Report of the commission of inquiry on human rights in Eritrea (2015), paras 295-6: “the Commission finds that Eritrean officials have committed the crime of persecution [against the Afar and Kunama], a crime against humanity, in a large-scale and routine manner since May 1991,” Report of the commission of inquiry on human rights in Eritrea (2016), paras 88, 112 “The Afar and Kunama ethnic groups were particularly targeted in the period from 1998 to 2001. Persecution has been an integral part of the Government’s efforts to maintain its authority in a manner contrary to international law. The commission, therefore, finds that Eritrean officials have committed the crime of persecution, a crime against humanity, in a widespread and systematic manner since May 1991.”

[iii] United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, arts 3,4

[iv] United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, arts 7, 8, 10

[v] United Nations Office on the Responsibility to Protect

[Read more]

Afar Unity Congress Press Release

Statement on Afar Unity Congress in Uppsala, Sweden, June 30-July 1, 2018

July 5, 2018 | Over 200 delegates from Afar and other Eritrean opposition groups gathered in Uppsala, Sweden to create a new, unified Eritrean Afar opposition organization, the Eritrean Afar National Congress (EANC). Delegates elected Mr. Ahmed Youssouf Mohamed President of EANC, Mr. Abdurhman Ahmed Mahmud Vice-President, 35 members to its Legislative Council and 15 members to its Executive Committee.

Citing United Nations findings, EANC condemned the Eritrean government’s ongoing crimes against humanity against the Afar people, ethnic cleansing of indigenous Afar people from their traditional lands, uncompensated expropriations and exploitations of Afar traditional resources, and other widespread human rights violations against Afar people by Eritrea and Eritrean officials.[Readmore]

EANC البيان الختامي للمؤتمر التوحيدي لتأسيس المؤتمر الوطني لعفر ارتريا


 انعقد المؤتمرالتوحيدي لتأسيس المؤتمر الوطني لعفر ارتريا خلال الفترة 30/ يونيو—1/ يوليو من العام الجاري ٢٠١٨م في مدينة اوبسالا بمملكة السويد .في ظل اجواء مفعمة بروح الوحدة ونبذ الخلاف انطلقت فعاليات المؤتمر تحت شعار ( بوحدتنا نقاوم التطهير العرقي الممنهج الذي يتعرض له شعبنا وبها نبني ارتريا وطن تصان فيه حقوق القوميات.) وقد جاء هذا المؤتمر تتويجا لجهود جبارة وعمل متواصل ودؤب قامت به كافة الجهات المشاركة في هذا المؤتمر .كما انه جاء استجابة لندآت كافة [Read more]

EANC Inkittiino Koboxih Maybalaalaqa

Massakaxxale Qafar ayyuntaw Giclo Salaamatta nek sin taafay

Akah tamixxige innah  June alsak 30-July 1 f  Eritriyah Qafarah tangiicille Missoynani Kee Giclaaba Ummatta Giclo maqarbahtuuy, ummattah essero fanteena abakaay, fixixih suge cayla sitta fan baahak inkittiino kobox Ni inkittiinol net yakkeh yan samad baysat koositak, Agat kee Agattiinah garal solta Eritriya daabisenno! inta itroh gubal culeenim tamixxigeh tan tiya.

Tama koboxu luuy, inki xagaraay, inki missoynaay, inki taddiira kee madqa haysitak Eritriyah Qafarih Agatih Kobox / Eritrean Afar National Congress (EANC) deqsittah Eritriyah Qafarih caddol baar le gabah assagolla leh tan maqar le Missoyna akak taabaku xiqte.

Tama koboxuk firti ayrooy, kobox missossa makaadoh qangaral fakkiimak daffeynaay, fakkintu dudde.

Ciggiilak tengeleh tan Missoynaanih saqoltii kee Giclaaba ta egla fan akah yamaatunu duudeenim kee edde yan tuxxiiq koboxuh baxxaqisen.

Edde katayak ta egla bictuh mango doori digirteh tan Qafar tu taaxago ta eglah loonuh yanin ruftoo kee aytakuma elle qaddoysen.

Tonnah kaaduuy, seeco akah tekkeh tan Eritriyak sadi Missoynaani kee Ummattah eglaali (Civic Organisations) awlaytit qokol qangor yoysobben.

Tonnah tama koboxuk naharsi ayrok carri waktit Afrikah gaysal yan siyaasah caalataay, axcih Eritrea kee Ethiopiyah fanal away yan Siyaasa afkan wagsiisa kusaq kee agaarad elle yekkeh yen. Tama agaarad baxsaluk hangi akah yeceem namma doolatih carbih fanat raaqe maraak muxxi Qafar kee Qafarbaaxo duffunteh tan baaxo kee ummatta

kinnuk, Asaaku Salaamah yakkeh yan macal Qafar baaxoksah Qafar fanteena abewaakaa tekkek waara Salaam yamaatu duude waam kee nee maleh ni baaxoh amol yakkeh yan wagari sarrimanne allewaam tama kusaaqal diggoosoonu duuden.

Baxsaluk tama agaarad kee kusaaqak is duddah tan Maybalaalaqa(Uppsala declaration) tewqem massakaxxaluk aytit siinik hayna.

Koboxuk nammay haytoh ayro  EANC Fanti Makaadoy, 35 takke elle doorinte. Tonnah Fanti makaado isi addak 15 takke taama selta makadoh adoytit doortu dudde.

Tonnah taama selta makado isi addak Missoyna Saqalah Giclaabeena Ahmed Youssouf Mohamed doorakaay, Missoynak Ciggiila Saqalah Giclaabeena Abdurahman Ahmed Mahmud doorime.

Inkittiino koboxuk edde newqe ximmom ahak gubal anele:

Ellecabol Koboxukuuy, EANC taddiira (political Program) kee Adda-madqa(Bylaw) elle faatacisen.

Tama EANC taddirak lafale ximmomak tutyabnek Eritriyah Qafar Isaamoh xin isih madqittaamih Cakki daabimaamah yangiicileenim kee tonnah Eritriyal Agat kee Agattiinah Cakkil rakita Federalism (Ethnic Federalism) daabisaanamah yangiicileenim elle diggowteeh faatacinte.

  1. Missoyna migaq : Eritriyah Qafarih Agatih Kobox yakeemil faatacinte.
  2. Inkittiino diggossa taama gablusaanam kee fixix kee kookaxaw bayisoonu yangiicileeni.
  3. Eritriyah Qafar isaamoh Xin geytu abna giclo maqar luk bisoh heelenum diggoysen.
  4. Tonnah kaadu tama kobox Uppsalah kokti (Uppsala declaration) akak yewqe.
  5. Eritriyaa kee Etiyobbiyah mamqa wagsiisak, Salaam faxxintam kinnim diggooseenim kee takkay ikkah Eritriyah Qafarih ummatta yekke carbit muxxi duffunteh tan ummatta kinnuk, away yakke wagri waara wagri yakku Shaqbiyyah butta taddigilem faxxintam diggose.
  6. Eritriyah Qafarih Missoynaanik away a eglat gaba assagalle wayte, gaba net tassagalluh seeco keenih tatrusem kee away namma doolatih fanat yan wagri silaytuk ugutak Eritriyah Qafarih giclo kee ummattal cabu waa raatah EANC faxximma inta giclo   kee gaba mabbux abalem diggosse.
  7. Inkih tan Eritriyak sadi caylitte Eritriyah ummatta edde tan gibdaabinaa kee saaxak tawquh aban giclo dumaak muxxi diggoysaanam kee tittale yakkeenimih seeco tatruse kobox.
  8. Baad dowal kee sahdayti garah tangiicile eglaali ni ummattat yakke saax kee Samad baysa soolisnuh abna giclo qokloonu seeco tatrusna.
  9. Inkih tan Eritriyah Qafarih xaylo toobokeh tan EANC Missoynat gaba yassagalleenim kee gablusaanamih seco tatrusna.
  10. Ellacabol Ni Ummattat yakkeh yan samad baysat koositak, Isamoh xin Gar daabimu takke giclo dumaak muxxi qanxaffe bahsiisak akah nangiicile ummatta fanteena abak  giclo bisoh helem inkittiino kobox diggoysak maysol yumurruqe.

Mayso Eritriyah Qafarih Ummattah imiiy!

Baatii kee gactittiino Shaqbiyyah buttah imi!

Inkittiino Koboxu Uppsala 3 July 2018

Ethiopia and Eritrea must obtain Eritrean Afar consent for any agreement concerning use of Afar traditional lands


June 23, 2018 | The Eritrean Afar National Congress (EANC), the Afar Nation within Eritrea, and Eritrean Afar exiled in Ethiopia and Djibouti, and the Eritrean Afar traditional leadership [“the Afar”] welcome Eritrea’s announcement that it will enter direct negotiations with Ethiopia towards normalization of relations on the basis of the Algiers Agreement of 2000.

As normalization includes granting Ethiopia access to the Eritrean port of Assab and Dankalia, which is traditional Afar territory, we require that any agreement to use Eritrean Afar territory receive the fully informed, prior consent of Afar indigenous people.

United Nations agencies have repeatedly criticized Eritrea for removing the Afar from their traditional territories, including Assab and its environs, by killings, mass murders, rapes, torture and other atrocities which the UN found amounted to crimes against humanity. The UN also found that Afar displacement from their traditional lands threatens Afar livelihoods as Afar depend on their traditional lands for their sustenance as an indigenous people.

Accordingly, in accordance with international law, the Eritrean Afar call upon Ethiopia and Eritrea to include an Afar representative in their talks and demand that any agreement about the use of Afar traditional lands receive the fully informed, prior consent of the Afar.

The Eritrean Afar National Congress will hold a press conference about the current developments during the Afar Unity Congress in Uppsala, Sweden on June 30th, 2018.  The EANC will unveil its new policy and introduce new executive leadership to lead the struggle for Afar internal self-determination in Eritrea. We call on all stakeholders for peace to join us at this press conference. [PDF]

Conference venue and program details are attached in the link below

For further information contact:

Tel: ‎ +613-627 3273, 613 266 0929

Website:, Email: